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features are recovered, despite the fact that they require startlingly different arm dynamics (i.e. "Observations on the automatic compensation of reflex gain on varying the pre-existing level of motor discharge in man". For motor control by machines and robots, see. There is no partial firing in the motor unit, meaning, once the signal is detected, all the muscles fibers within the unit contract. The Co-ordination and Regulation of Movement. 20 The need to control all of the relevant components independently is removed because organization emerges automatically as a consequence of the systematic covariation of components. Evidence for the existence of motor programs comes from studies of rapid movement execution and the difficulty associated with changing those movements once they have been initiated. Motor Programs edit While synergies represent coordination derived from peripheral interactions of motor components, motor programs are specific, pre-structured motor activation patterns that are generated and executed by a central controller (in the case of a biological organism, the brain). This process requires cooperative interaction between the central nervous system and the musculoskeletal system, and is thus a problem of information processing, coordination, mechanics, physics, and cognition.

Motor control includes movement functions which can.
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"Understanding finger coordination through analysis of the structure of force variability". As detailed in the " Synergies " section, many actions and movements can be executed in multiple ways because functional synergies controlling those actions are able to co-vary without changing the outcome of the action. 713736 Matthews PB (1986). The major difference between low threshold motor units (slow twitch motor unit) and high threshold motor units (fast twitch motor unit) is that high threshold motor units control more muscle fibers and contain larger muscle fibers, in comparison to low threshold motor unit. They can also take the outcome of a motion and attempt to determine the sequence of motor commands that resulted in that state. Some of the first reaction time experiments were carried out by Franciscus Donders, who used the difference in response times to a simple reaction task and a choice reaction task to determine the length of time needed to process the stimuli and choose the correct. Thus, when the body has to carry an extremely massive object, it would recruited all the available motor units to contract for the particular muscle that has been used. "Effect of Sensory Motor Rhythm Neurofeedback on Psycho-physiological, Electro-encephalographic Measures and Performance of Archery Players".

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Synergies are learned, rather than being hardwired like reflexes, and are organized in a task-dependent manner; a synergy is structured for a particular action and not determined generally for the components themselves. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Illinois 1982, p 186.A. Differences between the expected arm movement and the observed arm movement produces an error signal which is used as the basis for learning. Synergies have two defining characteristics in addition to being task dependent; sharing and flexibility/stability. Yarrow, Kielan; Brown, Peter; Krakauer, John. These compensatory actions are reflex-like in that they occur faster than perceptual processing would seem to allow, yet they are only present in expert performance, not in novices. "Functional Significance of cell size in spinal motor neurons". Fast twitch motor units are controlled by fast-twitch nerves while Slow twitch motor units are controlled by slow twitch nerves. To best study this type of control, most research focuses on deafferentation studies, often involving cats or monkeys whose sensory nerves have been disconnected from their spinal cords. 16 17 The components of a synergy need not be physically connected, but instead are connected by their response to perceptual information about the particular motor task being executed. 33 There are three primary types of muscle fibers : Type I, Type IIa and Type IIb.